Main Article Content
Context: The social ecological systems (SES), characterised by intertwined relations between humans and nature, have been studied by researchers from different disciplines in the last 20 years. The concept of SES has been used to explain resilience in the face of change, including ecosystem regime shifts, climate change, disturbances and stresses over agricultural systems.
Objective: This paper is a literature review of the contributions of Social Network Theory for the study of adaptive management of social-ecological systems, which is influenced by capacities of the social subsystem, such as learning, innovation and collaboration.
Methods: A research for peer-reviewed articles was carried out, totalling 46 scientific articles using the social network approaches for the analysis adaptive management. A complementary review of the main concepts discussed was also conducted.
Results: This paper presents the most relevant structural characteristics of social networks to explain systems’ capacity to self-organisein order to adapt to crises and change. Individuals and institutions play different roles in co-management and governance processes, which is reflected in decision-making capacity, leadership and cooperation.
Conclusions: The structural features of social networks are associated with adaptive capacity of socio-ecological systems. The adaptive approach allows social groups and institutions to improve resilience in different management systems. The existence of polycentric structures, with well-connected nodes, indicates the heterogeneity necessary for experimentation and innovation, which can be ensured with adequate network coordination.
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObrasDerivadas 4.0.
Derechos de autor 2018
Copyright ©Agrisost/ (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional
Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2003). Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541957
Bodin, Ö. (2006). A network perspective on ecosystems, societies and natural resource management. Suecia: Stockholm University. Retrieved on March 18, 2018, from: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:200276/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Bodin, Ö., & Crona, B. I. (2009). The role of social networks in natural resource governance: What relational patterns make a difference? Global Environmental Change, 19(3), 366–374, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.05.002
Bodin, Ö., Crona, B., & Ernstson, H. (2006). Social Networks in Natural Resource Management What Is There to Learn from a Structural Perspective. Ecology and Society, 11(2), r2, doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01808-1102r02
Carlsson, L., & Berkes, F. (July 11-14, 2003). Co-management Across Levels of Organization: Concepts and Methodological Implications. Lead paper prepared for the Resilience panel at the Regional Workshop of The International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP),“Politics of the Commons: Articulating Development and Strengthening Local Practices.” Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Carlsson, L., & Berkes, F. (2005). Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management,75(1), 65–76, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.11.008
Carlsson, L. G., & Sandström, A. C. (2007). Network Governance of the Commons. International Journal of the Commons, 2(1), 33–54, doi: http://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.20
Ceddia, M. G., Christopoulos, D., Hernandez, Y., & Zepharovich, E. (2017). Assessing adaptive capacity through governance networks: The elaboration of the flood risk management plan in Austria. Environmental Science and Policy, 77, 140–146, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.08.014
Chaffin, B. C., Garmestani, A. S., Gosnell, H., & Craig, R. K. (2016). Institutional networks and adaptive water governance in the Klamath River Basin, USA. Environmental Science and Policy,57, 112–121, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.11.008
Colding, J., & Barthel, S. (2019). Exploring the social-ecological systems discourse 20 years later. Ecology and Society, 24(1), 2, doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10598-240102
Dell’Apa, A., Fullerton, A., Schwing, F., & Brady, M. M. (2015). The status of marine and coastal ecosystem-based management among the network of U. S. federal programs. Marine Policy, 60, 249–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.07.011
Folke, C. (2016). Resilience (Republished). Ecology and Society, 21(4), 44, doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09088-210444
Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockström, J. (2010). Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 20, doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03610-150420
Folke, C., Hahn, T., Olsson, P. & Norberg, J. (November, 2005). Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 441-473, doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144511
Hillis, V., Lubell, M., & Hoffman, M. (2018). Sustainability partnership and viticulture management in California. Journal of Environmental Management, 217, 214–225, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.03.033
Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1–23, doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245
Holling, C. S. (ed.) (1978). Adaptive Environmental Assessing and Management.(Wiley IlASA International Series on Applied Systems Analysis). New York: Toronto: Intemational lnstitute for Applied Systems Analysis. JOHN WILEY & SONS. Retrieved on March 6, 2018, from: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/823/1/XB-78-103.pdf
Horning, D., Bauer, B. O., & Cohen, S. J. (2016). Missing bridges: Social network (dis) connectivity in water governance. Utilities Policy, 43, Part A, 59–70, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2016.06.006
Marín, A., & Berkes, F. (2010). Network approach for understanding small-scale fisheries governance: The case of the Chilean coastal co-management system. Marine Policy, 34(5), 851–858, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2010.01.007
Mulvaney, K. K., Lee, S., Höök, T. O., & Prokopy, L. S. (2015). Casting a net to better understand fi sheries management: An af fi liation network analysis of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Marine Policy, 57, 120–131, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.03.008
Newman, L., & Dale, A. (2005). Network structure, diversity, and proactive resilience building: A response to Tompkins and Adger. Ecology and Society, 10(1), r2, doi: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01396-1001r02
Nidumolu, U., Lim-Camacho, L., Gaillard, E., Hayman, P., & Howden, M. (June, 2018). Linking climate forecasts to rural livelihoods: Mapping decisions, information networks and value chains. Weather and Climate Extremes, 100174, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2018.06.001
Olsson, P., Schultz, L., Folke, C., & Hahn, T. (2003). Social networks for ecosystem management: a case study of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. Social Networks, 1–11.Retrieved on March 18, 2018, from: https://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/bridging/papers/olsson.per.pdf
Rickenbach, M. (2009). Serving members and reaching others: The performance and social networks of a landowner cooperative. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(8), 593–599, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2009.08.006
Saint Ville, A. S., Hickey, G. M., & Phillip, L. E. (2017). Institutional analysis of food and agriculture policy in the Caribbean: The case of Saint Lucia. Journal of Rural Studies, 51, 198–210, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.03.004
Tompkins, E. L., & Adger, W. N. (2004). Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecology and Society, 9(2), Art.10. Retrieved on April 14, 2018, from: https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art10/print.pdf
Tuda, A. O., Kark, S., & Newton, A. (June, 2019). Exploring the prospects for adaptive governance in marine transboundary conservation in East Africa. Marine Policy, 104, 75–84, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.02.051
Villiers, A. C. de, Esler, K. J., & Knight, A. T. (2014). Social processes promoting the adaptive capacity of rangeland managers to achieve resilience in the Karoo, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 276–283, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.08.005
Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social – ecological Systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), Art. 5. Retrieved on April 14, 2018, from: https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5/