Ciencia y Deporte Vol. 8. No. 1, January-April 2023, p. e4303


Original article


A Curricular Program for Teaching Judo in the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Education


Programa curricular para la enseñanza del judo en la carrera de Pedagogía de la Actividad Física


Programa curricular para o ensino de judô no curso de Pedagogia da Atividade Física


Rodrigo Valdivia Quintero1*, Manuel Gutiérrez Cruz2, Isaac Loor Mendoza1, Cristian Patricio Calle Velesaca3


1State University of Milagro. Ecuador.

2The University of Guayaquil. Ecuador.

3The Rosa de Jesus Cordero Educational Facility Ecuador.






Introduction: Judo is a martial art whose practice is done under an atmosphere of respect, discipline, and strictness; hence every physical capacity must be enhanced through several different methods.
Aim: To design a program for judo teaching and learning of the basic techniques by the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in the form of pedagogic pre-experiment, which showed significant changes in the performance of basic judo techniques. A total of 26 subjects in the sixth term of the program were included, all belonging to the University of Guayaquil. The methods used were measurements and the results of three basic judo technique tests, such as Tachi waza, Osae-Komi-Waza, and Kwansetsu-Waza.
Results: The main results consisted of a program with the following structure: introduction, content rationale, contribution to the graduate profile, theme or analysis units, and learning assessment, which were closely linked to the system and contents.
Conclusions: The feasibility of the judo program was confirmed in the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity, which brought about substantial improvements and significant contrasts in the implementation of the basic techniques during the post-test, with increases over 50 % in the results of the tests performed.

Keywords: Judo, teaching-learning, physical activity.


Introducción: El judo es un arte marcial, su práctica se realiza bajo un ambiente de respeto, disciplina y exigencia, para el constituye una gran importancia el desarrollo de todas las capacidades físicas, variados y disímiles son los métodos que utiliza este para el desarrollo de dichas capacidades
Objetivo: Elaborar un programa de judo para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de las técnicas básicas en los estudiantes de la carrera Pedagogía de la Actividad Física y Deporte de la Universidad de Guayaquil.
Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio experimental en su modalidad de pre-experimento pedagógico que evidenció los cambios significativos en la ejecución de las técnicas básicas del judo a 26 sujetos correspondientes al sexto semestre de la carrera de Pedagogía de la actividad física de la Universidad de Guayaquil, se utilizaron como métodos la medición y los resultados de tres pruebas técnicas básicas del judo como son Tachi waza, Osae-Komi-Waza y Kwansetsu-Waza
Resultados: los principales resultados constituyeron un programa que presentó la siguiente estructura introducción, justificación de los contenidos, aportes al perfil de egreso, unidades temáticas o de análisis y evaluación de los aprendizajes, los que tienen una relación en sistema y contenidos muy bien relacionados.
Conclusiones: Se comprobó la funcionalidad del programa de judo para la carrera de Pedagogía de la actividad física con mejoras sustanciales y diferencias significativas en la ejecución de las técnicas básicas durante la posprueba con incrementos por encima del 50 % en los resultados de los test aplicados.

Palabras clave: Judo, enseñanza-aprendizaje, actividad física.


Introdução: O judô é uma arte marcial, sua prática é realizada sob uma atmosfera de respeito, disciplina e exigência, pois constitui uma grande importância o desenvolvimento de todas as capacidades físicas, variadas e dissimilares são os métodos que este utiliza para o desenvolvimento destas capacidades.
Objetivo: Elaborar um programa de judô para o ensino-aprendizagem de técnicas básicas em estudantes de Atividade Física e Pedagogia Esportiva na Universidade de Guayaquil.
Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo experimental na forma de uma pré-experimentação pedagógica que mostrou mudanças significativas na execução de técnicas básicas de judô em 26 disciplinas correspondentes ao sexto semestre do curso de Pedagogia da Atividade Física na Universidade de Guayaquil. Os métodos utilizados foram a medição e os resultados de três provas técnicas básicas de judô, tais como Tachi waza, Osae-Komi-Waza e Kwansetsu-Waza.
Resultados: os principais resultados constituíram um programa que apresentou a seguinte estrutura: introdução, justificação dos conteúdos, contribuições ao perfil da graduação, unidades temáticas ou unidades de análise e avaliação da aprendizagem, que têm uma relação no sistema e conteúdos que estão muito bem relacionados.
Conclusões: A funcionalidade do programa de judô para o curso de Pedagogia da Atividade Física foi comprovada com melhorias substanciais e diferenças significativas na execução das técnicas básicas durante o pós-teste com aumentos acima de 50 % nos resultados dos testes aplicados.

Palavras-chave: Judô, ensino-aprendizagem, atividade física.


Judo is a martial art whose practice is done under an atmosphere of respect, discipline, and strictness; hence every physical capacity must be enhanced through several different methods. It has spread throughout the world, beyond the Japanese borders, and it is practiced in every continent, with adjustments of this art to the idiosyncrasy, physical capacities, and talents of every society.

In the early stages, it was associated with education, as part of a multilateral process of values, with educational methods by the individuals. Its creator, professor Jigoro Kano (1860-1938), founded it in 1882; it was based on two principles, minimum effort and maximum efficacy (sei ryoku zen yo), and mutual satisfaction (Jita kyo ei).

The purpose of education in judo is not exclusively the acquisition of certain knowledge or skills based on a scientific theory of judo, but also the development of more supportive human beings, who can be free, creative, and recreational of their culture, with the ultimate end of improving their life quality in their area of influence.

is then necessary to optimize teaching, standardize the theory of judo, foster the diffusion of the sport, training effective instructors, setting functional and simple rules for the competition, training the ideal referees, identifying trained executives in sports management, and become part of the system of sports in every nation. In that sense, several authors have contributed to the pedagogics of judo, such as, Arnáiz, J. M. (2009), Navarro, M., Montesino, S., Celis, D., Jaimes M. & Palomino (2012); Aldaz, L. A. S., Bajaña, R. R., & Carbo, E. V. S. (2018) y Mesa, M. D. C. C., Alegre, N. P., Hornillo, L. T., & del Castillo Andrés, Ó. (2022); Trujillo, M. O. E., & Nogales, O. I. G. (2022).

The design of a teaching program requires proper research within the applicable context. These programs are used in most countries to provide a logical and pedagogic arrangement of contents. In Latin America, particularly in Ecuador, they are also part of the everyday life in different areas. In this direction, authors like Perdomo Bossa, O. D. (2021); Ortiz, J. A. (2022), Benítez Ferigra, J. D., & Gadvay Manzano, E. V. (2022), have published several papers.

Meanwhile, Vargas, R. (2007) noted that the sports teaching program is the logical, pedagogic, and methodological arrangement of a teaching-learning process where the contents and articulation of technical and physical elements that students should acquire, are determined in a given period of time. They make up the base for further sports training. Different from training plans, sports teaching programs, mostly aim to the teaching of the sports discipline, rather than the student's sports performance. As to the programs of sports disciplines, research done by Uñiz, M. S., & Bruno, J. L. C. (2021); Smith Palacio, E. (2021); Foresto, W. (2021); González Banchón, E. B. (2022); Rivera Holguín, W. X. (2022) and Romero Ibarra, O. P. (2022), stand out.

Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to design a program for judo teaching and learning of the basic techniques by the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil.



The population of the experiment consisted of the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports (26), at the University of Guayaquil, in their sixth term of the degree. The two principal judo teachers in charge of team training were the source of information, namely, the technical director and the fitness coach.

The theoretical methods used were the analytical-synthetic, inductive-deductive, and integrated-functional systemic. They helped broaden the analysis of the theoretical and methodological rationales for the teaching-learning process of the basic judo techniques; the interpretation of the results by means of empirical methods and techniques; inferences and generalizations associated with the teaching-learning process of the techniques, and for the conception of the components, structure, relations, and functions of the program suggested.

The empirical methods and techniques were documentary analysis, survey, interview, scientific observation, measurements, and experiment. They helped corroborate aspects related to teacher training, planning reliability, lesson implementation, basic judo technique learning to design a program for judo teaching and learning of the basic techniques by the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil.



Pérez, E. (2015), in his Ph.D. thesis highlighted the didactic rationales for teacher training in studies on university educational processes, according to Hurrutinier, P. (2006); Ginoris, O., Addine, F. and Turcaz, J. (2007); Moréns-Chillón, A. (2012), among others. They explained the need for alternatives to a more comprehensive teaching in higher education.

Education, according to León (2010), is the "Permanent process of acquisition, structuring, and restructuring of conducts (knowledge, skills, values) to perform any profession" (p.5), whereas López (2007) noted that professional education is the process of internal enrichment through the assimilation of a culture and history that characterizes a given profession at a particular time and setting. It can be implemented to enhance knowledge and the qualities demanded by a particular career (p.29).

Graduate education has a remarkable significance because it not only transmits, teaches, or provides learning associated with relevant scientific knowledge, but also it transmits and teaches learning methods for the acquisition of skills, dexterities, and competencies that enable professional education with a creative and researching spirit that is closely related to real production problems, the industry and society as a whole. These aspects were analyzed by authors like Dorantes, J. S. & Campos, G. (2011); Tantaleán, R. L, Vargas, M. J & López, O. (2016); Aguilar, F. R. (2017); Alpizar, L. & Molina, M. (2018).

In that sense, the physical education and sports careers in Ecuador have been studied by some authors, such as Aldas, H. G. & Gutiérrez, H. (2014), who stressed that "In the local, national, and international settings, professional performance demands particular training for the development of new technical-professional competencies that enable their professional performance in the areas of teaching, management and administration, physical training, sports, and recreation." (p.8).

The objective of the Pedagogic Degree in Physical Activity, Sports and Recreation is to train professionals who are capable of leading and conducting training and educational processes proactively with academic excellence, based on extensive knowledge of science, methodology, and humanism, by promoting projects (...) with a critical and reflexive thinking, in accordance with the social, cultural, and economic demands, respecting gender equality, interculturalism, and the preservation of the environment.

The inclusion of judo in the curriculum of the Pedagogic Degree associated with physical activity in Ecuador, relies on the contributions of this martial art, also dealt with by authors like Santos, N. (2003); Kashiwazaki, K, (2004); Navarro, M., Montesino, S., Celis, D., Jaimes M. & Palomino (2012); Pulido, S., Fuentes, JP and De la Vega, R. (2021). The theoretical background permits the authors to presenting this program in subject Judo as part of the Pedagogic Degree in the area of physical activity and sports, whose structure is, introduction, content explanation, contribution to the graduate profile, theme or analysis units, and learning assessment. The program's contents are highlighted below:

A: Introduction

The Faculty of Physical Culture at the University of Guayaquil offers two degrees for teachers, resulting from the need for physical activity and sports specialists to be in charge of educational institutions' demands, and also match the extensive development of sports, with a humanistic and scientific perspective. Currently, this bachelor degree is implementing educational reforms to deal with the national pedagogic needs.

The profession aims to train professionals whose graduate profiles allow them to change pedagogic and didactic processes, and intervene in the construction of methodologies that enable their students to reap the maximum from their psycho motor skills.

To exercise and therefore, contribute to preventing and reducing the levels of idleness, and their harmful effects to health, as well as promoting independent and critical engagement in physical and recreational activities with a social and cultural inclusion in terms of leisure utilization, ensuring higher life quality levels.

To broaden the profile and scope of graduates from the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports, the University of Guayaquil set out to change the curriculum to meet the new demands with the preferences of the new graduates.

Accordingly, a diagnostic was conducted to know the preferences of the starter students over combat or defense sports, thus expanding the number of combat sports included in the curriculum in the fourth term.

Based on the results of the diagnostic, and considering that judo has enormous educational values and meaning to the education of new generations, it was concluded that its inclusion in the curriculum of these undergraduates is of paramount importance, in keeping with the philosophical, sociological, psychological, and pedagogic rationales, as well as the contributions of its techniques, tactics, strategy, and intelligence during combat and the dynamism of judo itself as a lifestyle.

B: Content rationale

Judo is one of the martial arts from the far east that has become a sport, taking a relevant position in the formation of values to new generations. Hence, it has earned the preferences of youngsters not only in schools but also in the communities.

The inclusion of judo in the curriculum of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical activity and Sports is a novel aspect that ensures that professionals can broaden their knowledge on combat sports didactics to tackle fitness, and technical and tactical preparedness, the development of theoretical and psychological components of graduates to be in the organization and management of competencies, training control, and talent selection.

The organization and management of athletes in competitions is significantly important for adult sports practice in communities. It permits them to learning the history and rules of the sport. It also permits them to conduct technical, tactical, organizational, and methodological skills that allow them to manage sports preparedness processes in schools and communities.

It also offers them knowledge and the development of specific competencies for sports training lesson management with a comprehensive approach, to organize competitions, and to lead the athletes in these competitions.

Theoretical contributions

It will expose the graduates to the theoretical, methodological, and practical rationales to conduct sustainable sports preparedness of children and young talents, as well as sport practice of adults, for a healthy life.

Methodological contributions

The students in the second term will receive the methodological procedures to conduct physical, technical-tactical, psychological, and theoretical preparedness of athletes, including aspects related to athlete organization and management in competitions.

Helping understand professional problems

Merging theoretical-methodological and practical elements of judo could assist professionals with the preparedness to manage sports training and practice of other combat sports.

Application context

In the area of school sports and sports practice of adults in their free time.

C: Contribution to the graduate profile

Generics of the University of Guayaquil.

Specific of the degree

Learning achievements

At the end of this curricular module, the students have acquired theoretical-methodological mastery of didactics, the laws, principles, and categories of sports training, with a relation between general didactics and sports didactics, as tools for effective actions in the educational process of judo, such as,

D: Theme or analysis units

Unit No.1. Theoretical bases of judo


To recognize that judo emerged as a martial art and evolved through history to become a sport with rules and educational potentialities.


Unit No.2. Technical and practical preparedness of judo practitioners.


To demonstrate the technical-tactical preparedness accomplished through the teaching-learning process of judo, and its differences as a school sport and a social sport.


Unit No.3. Talent selection and training control.


To dominate the instruments that may be helpful for the selection of possible talents and pedagogic tests for training control at different moments of training.


E: Learning assessment

Formative management 30 %

a) Participatory work in class.
b) Workshop and collaborative work reports.
c) Reading controls.
d) Case study presentations.

Practical and autonomous management 30 %.

a) Individual and group exhibitions.
b) Demonstration of direct use of the literature.
c) Laboratory practice, participation in workshops and seminars.
d) Oral and written exercises on legal techniques.
e) Varied practices, including laboratory practices.
f) Field work.

Accreditation and validation 40 %.

a) Oral and written theoretical exams.
b) Oral and written practical exams.
c) Rationales for research projects and practical cases.

The implementation of the judo program for the teaching-learning of basic judo techniques by the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil relies on a pedagogic pre-experiment, and the application of an input pre-test and post-test diagnostics of the 26 subjects studied. the program's feasibility was corroborated through the efficacy of learning the basic elements.

Table 1 shows the results of a comparison between the pre-test and the post-test of the Tachi waza projection technique (Table 1).

Table 1. - Pre-test and post-test results of the Tachi waza technique

Made by: Valdivia, Loor & Gutiérrez (2022).

As shown in table 1, there was an increase of the GOOD category (69.23 %); 18 students showed their skills to develop this technique; four students (15.37 %) were included in the AVERAGE category, with an 84.61 % reduction in the BAD category.

Results of a comparison between the pre-test and the post-test of the Osae-Komi-Waza (immobilizing) technique (Table 2).

Table 2. - The Osae-Komi-Waza immobilizing technique in the pre-test and post-test

Made by: Valdivia, Loor & Gutiérrez (2022).

Table 2 shows the similarity of the results between the two techniques. The GOOD category saw a 69.23 % increase; 18 students demonstrated their skills to develop this technique; other four students (15.37 % increase) were in the AVERAGE category; whereas the students in the BAD category showed an 84.61 % decrease.

Results of a comparison between the pre-test and the post-test of the Kwansetsu-Waza (luxation) technique (Table 3).

Table 3.- The Kwansetsu-Waza (luxation) technique in the pre-test and post-test

Made by: Valdivia, Loor & Gutiérrez (2022).

As shown in Table 3, this last technique underwent an 80.76 % increase of individuals within the GOOD category, whereas the individuals in the AVERAGE category had a 7.69 % increase. The reduction in the BAD category was a positive sign (23 students), accounting for 88.46 %.

A comparison of the sports training procedures

A total of 30 training sessions were observed before and after the implementation of the methodological strategy, and the activities, which involved 19 indicators determined by expert criteria. Fifteen of them were assessed before, and other 15 were included after.

There was an increase in all the indicators related to sports training observation. Of the 15 training sessions observed after the intervention, two scored the very good category in the 19 parameters established (13.3 %); between 10 and 15 were assesses as good, whereas none was in the bad category. The highest scores were given in five sessions on the utilization of methods, procedures, motivation, interactive teaching-learning, techniques, and objective fulfillment.

Qualitative analysis of the results

Following the quantitative analysis and method triangulation and theories, the main results were assessed qualitatively to provide more comprehensive information of the application of this program.

Undoubtedly, the implementation of the judo program the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil led to the following:



The diagnostic demonstrated that coach preparedness was poor, with limited performance in terms of basic judo technique preparedness, as observed in the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports, at the University of Guayaquil. There was no judo program that could favor the acquisition of these skills in the students, whereas the students had no previous knowledge or motivation toward the sport.

The novel judo program designed has been properly structured according to its rationale, objectives, and contents. Its theoretical and methodological contributions to broader understanding of professional challenges are evidenced, in keeping with the context of application. The learning purposes associated with the field of study and objectives of the degree, and its contributions to the graduate profiles were expressed in theme or analysis units, and learning assessment through formative, practical, and autonomous management. Its accreditation and validation will be linked to the relations of the program's components.

The hypothesis of this study was accepted, considering the results of the pre-experiment through previous and later comparisons of the program's implementation, whose objective consisted in the teaching-learning of the basic techniques by the students of the Pedagogic Degree of Physical Activity and Sports in the University of Guayaquil, and coach's preparedness and performance, with feasible results.



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Conflict of interests:
Los autores declaran no tener conflictos de intereses.


Authors' contribution:
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.


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2023 Rodrigo Valdivia Quintero, Manuel Gutiérrez Cruz, Isaac Loor Mendoza, Cristian Patricio Calle Velesaca.